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Showing posts from 2009

chipmunk effect

when audio recordings are played more quickly than normal. both the pitch and the formants are transposed, whereas the ear usually expects the pitch to be transposed independently of the formants. this phenomenon of sound is known as chipmunk effect.


it is the coordinated ordering of events. it means to control the flow of information data from one level to another in an orderly fashion with respect to time. the occurrence of simultaneous event is known as synchronisation.dedicated devices and parallel computing are the parameters that leads to the synchronisation. absolute synchronisation in multimedia communication system is different for different media, but it should not affect the presentation quality. synchronisation events have real time deadlines. failures to synchronise can be handled by methods like frame representation or skipping.


delay, jitter, and errors are introduced during the transmission in a system is cumulative in nature which must be managed to achieve end to end quality of service(QOS). the management of collection of resources manager to achieve end to end synchronisation is called orchestration. QOS parameters are the fundamental units of orchestration. the qos parameters which permit system wide orchestration is called QOS orchestration.


it is the application of multimedia retrival system where we can store the information(image, graphics, audio,vedio, animation). example:-www.(world wide web) it is the collection of webpage build by w3c consortium. : colon to separate the protocol from the url locator. //directory structure(escape sequence). . used as separator FTP-file transfer protocol. features of hypermedia:- it has multiple media. it has limited interactivity. no synchronisation is required. on checking some words on the website we can go to the source website, where it is stored. hyperlink:- it is a link to other websites or the other pages in the same website. hypertext:- these are formatted text created by a language called h.t.m.l(hyper text mark up language). this text is basically used for the transfer of information on the internet.

types of multimedia

basically multimedia are of two types:- (i)linear multimedia:-it cannot be changed that is it doesn't allow us to change it as and when we want. for example:-animated mouse,animated movie,documentary (ii)non linear multimedia:-it can be used by the user by allowing them to change the contents. for example:-computer games.

Raster scanning process

the purpose of a video camera is to convert an image infront of camera into an electrical signal. an electrical signal has only one value(either on or off)at any instant of time and is one dimensional, but the image is two dimensional having many values at all the different positions in the image. conversion of 2-dimensional(2D) image to 1-dimensional electrical signal is accomplished by scanning that image in an orderly pattern called a Raster. with scanning, we move a sensing point rapidly over the image fast enough to capture the complete image, before it moves too much. as the sensing point moves the electrical output changes in response to brightness or colour of the image beneath the sensing point. the varying electrical signal from the senser represents the image as the series of values spread out in time. this is called a video signal.

colour video

color reproduction and display is different in between TV and computer, because computer monitor uses RGB component video i;e color is split into red, green and blue signals which are purer and more accurate than those scanned on TV monitor. *consequently the color used in graphics image created for computer video may display differently when the images transferred into NTSC transmission video. *indeed NTSC TV uses limited color palettes and restricted luminance(brightness levels and black levels). *some colors are generated by the computer that display fine color on RGB.the monitor may be illegal for display on NTSC TV broadcast. *most commercial broadcast facility and TV studios refuse to run programs that include illegal colors. *filters to convert illegal colors to legal colors are available in video and image editing processing application. the TV systems are designed to do particularly well on skin tones, not on hydrodynamical simulation. *very bright colors will vibrate distract

colour fundamentals

color is one of the most powerful elements in design, it has tremendous impact and expressive quality. *a color is described basically in three ways. (i)by its name(hue a property). (ii)how pure or desaturated it is(saturation level). (iii)its value or lightness. (a) HUE-hue is a term for the pure spectrum colors,commonly referred to by the "COLOR NAMES." *red, orange,yellow,green,blue an violet-all appear in the hue circles or color spectrum. *theoretically all colors can be mix from 3 basic hues known as, the primary colors(hue). (b)saturation-saturation or purity refers to the intensity of a specific hue or color. (c)lightness-value is defined as the relative lightness(tint), or darkness(shade) of a color.

Motion Picture Expert Grop

Motion Picture Expert group. -it is a full motion video. -the inter frame is of ratio 200:1. -the audio encoding ratio is of order 5:1. the decompression is done before the playback of the file. -the data is compressed to reduce the size of the source information. -it allows full motion media i,e audio and video. in inter frame each image is considered as still image. -mpeg contains two layers. (i)system layer. (ii)compression layer. *SYSTEM LAYER-it contains timing information to synchronize audio and video. *COMPRESSION LAYER-this layer is responsible for compressing of source data.

National song of india Vande Mataram, lyrics and meaning

"वन्दे मातरम सुजलाम   सुफलाम मलयज शीतलाम सस्यश्यामलाम मातरम शुब्रज्योत्स्ना पुलकित यामिनीम पुल्ल्कुसुमिता द्रुमदल शोभिनिम सुहाशिनिम सुमधरा भाशिनिम सुखदाम वरदाम मातरम वन्दे मातरम || (Upto this the song is adopted as the national song of India, that is the first 2 verses) सप्त-कोटि कंठ कलकलनिनाद कराले द्विसप्तकोटि भुजैर्धृत खरकारवाले अबला  केनो  माँ  एतो बाले बहुबलधारिणीम  नमामि  तारिणीम रिपुदलवारिणीम  मातरम तुमि  विद्या  तुमि  धर्मं तुमि  हृदये   तुमि  मर्म तवं  ही  प्राणाः  शरीरे बाहुते  तुमि  माँ  शक्ति हृदये  तुमि  माँ  भक्ति तोमार  इ  प्रतिमा  गडी मंदिरे  मंदिरे तवं  ही  दुर्गा  दशप्रहरणधारिनी कमला  कमलदल  विहारिणी वाणी  विद्यादायिनी  नमामि  त्वं नमामि  कमलां  अमलां  अतुलाम सुजलाम  सुफलाम  मातरम श्यामलाम सरलाम सुस्मितां भूषिताम ढरणीम  भरणीम  मातरम || Translation by Shree Aurobindo " Mother, I bow to thee! Rich with thy hurrying streams, bright with orchard gleams, Cool with thy winds of delight, Dark fields waving Mother of mig

History and Origin of Sanskrit Language

The Sanskrit language is truly a fountainhead if one surveys the three thousand years of its existence. The story of the origin of Sanskrit began right from the Vedic age, sailing through the post-Vedic years and centuries later till today. The Aryans collected the mass of hymns, rituals and poems about their gods in the four Vedas (10th century BC) which document the various dialects that they brought to India (but that wasn’t the Sanskrit we know of today). From the Punjab, where the Aryans settled first after they came from Central Asia, their speech spread along the east as far as present Bihar by about 600 BC. Obviously, this Vedic or Old Indo-Aryan language met with the language of the Dravidians (who were then not restricted to just the southern regions) and Austrics, and some give and take happened. The result was Prakrit or Middle Indo-Aryan dialect which soon engulfed the whole country in the north, east and centre. The Aryan invasion was moving towards completion.

History and origin of Language Urdu

Urdu is probably the most poetic of all languages. The Urdu language is spoken by more than 28 million heads in India. It is written in the Perso-Arabic script. The word Urdu (court or camp) stems from the Persianized Turkish word (Ordu) which meant ‘the camp of a Turkish army’. North Indian Muslims with their own dialects moved to South and Central India and settled among the Marathas, Kannadigas and Telugus. These dialects formed the basis of a literary speech is known as Dakhni or the ‘Southern Speech’ and was spoken in the Deccan. Later, north Indian Muslims, who came with Aurangzeb for his conquests down south and some Dakhni writers, saw the possibility of evolving a new language. This language would be based on the literary traditions of Dakhni and have the Persian script along with generous usage of Perso-Arabic words, idioms and theme ideas. Shamsuddin Waliullah a famous poet of the Dakhni actually started the North Indian Urdu. Other poets also joined in this new literary

Have you ever thought - English Poem

Have you ever thought Have you ever thought, where you are You are just like in india, as there is Bihar Have you ever thought, what you don’t have You have everything except realisation to have Have you ever test your mind, which always shines You are brilliant, just rewind the worlds time Have you ever thought about what you are You are just like a gearless car. Have you ever thought about what you mean? You are an offspring without the inherited gene Have you ever thought, what you can do, Just go home and think, what you can not do.

unanswered doubts

Unanswered doubts!! 01.If all the nations in the world are in debt(i am not joking. Even US has got debts), where did all the money go? (weird). 02.When dog food is new with improved tasting, who tests it? (to be given a thought). 03.What is the speed of darkness? (absurd). 04.If the "black box" flight recorder is never damaged during a plane crash, why isn't the whole airplane made out of that stuff? (very good thinking). 05.Who copyrighted the copyright symbol? (who knows). 06.Can you cry under water? (let me try). 07.Why do people say, "you've been working like a dog" when dogs just sit around all day? (I think they meant something else). 08.Why are the numbers on a calculator and a phone reversed? (God knows.) 09.Do fish ever get thirsty? (let me ask and tell). 10.Can you get cornered in a round room? (by ones eyes). 11.What does OK actually mean?. 12.Why do birds not fall out of trees when they sleep? (tonight I will s

my dreams

like the wind i want to fly much above the ground in the vast sky. like the birds under sun i want to roam live to see and have fun. above the horizon in heavens vast expanse i want to sing and happily i want to dance. in crowds and place i searched the way to them but not a clue i got but just mayhem. perhaps under the sea lies in its deep womb, the key or the sun shows the way no one knows. but i roam with a hungry heart for i have desired apart from the rest. may be someday i will find the way for the what i want to be when in grave i will die.

Fleeting Time - English Poem

The drizzles on the eve of monsoon the wind passes through the open window covering the fair face with her dry hair wetting the parched heart with living relics she stumbled on her mirthful childhood with fairy tales and horse rode prince with breathless venture she passed quickly the dream laden adolescence where life foresaw rainbows, thunders, rose-petals and nails she embraced the time with creamy night kissed the 'Real' pleasant and gleaming time became short-days to hours and hours to minutes till a gale broke the soft feathers of her flying wings alone, forlorn, beaten and crippled. only limitless woes and deepest mourn left her to a blank ether, boundless sea and solitary journey, friendliness and loveless. the flowing tear and pale face, the weeping lips and deep sighs the sleepless eyes and blank sky the grief laden rain with tearful sobs fills her life with unending pine.

Sweet Pain of Separation - A Poem

I beckon the breeze brushing me pass cold winter air on my chest the wall inside is lit up with contrast I ponder tonight in loneliness the light beyond the comatose corridors surpassing the dark windows and leaves remind me of my presence in desire that the demure solitude achieves the loyal moon travels the starry sky silent warmth in her creamy glow sober softness in her parlance the message they are for the heavens to show I walk up to the sleepy balcony my sane presence is not welcome here where madness resigned the spirits hours ago now I'm not with my friends here. I invite their voices through the breeze I invite their smiles through the moon I question their presence to the trees none of them answer but I heard the spirits which stayed with me their shadows still I could not see I feel the sweet pain of separation they must be talking about me. Poet - Arijit Mukherjee

A slumdog beauty

looking out of my hostel window I saw her quite distinguished from the group, as she tries to adjust her salwar but fails to escape from the shifty eyes of the leader. she hasn't yet touched eighteen but the time has made her to look so, even if she has no right to glow she tries very hard to walk out the overload. and time goes on from morning to evening some times at night, loading weight on the head more than herself, just to eat and live. sitting at my study table I thought a lot, but couldn't give an answer to my heart what is her fault?

Win Toss to Win Match

Toss, Yes, of course, plays a major role in determining the fate of a match. but as there are many many aspects in a match of cricket or any other sports which contribute to the teams winning probabilities. one can't say in damn sure that the team which has won the toss is going to win the match. a game is decided by the player's performance, their form , their teamwork and many more aspects like the coach of the team, the playground where the match is being played. the player's fitness, their talents/capability etc. so what I think is winning a toss to win a match is not of such a hype and important but it should be treated just like other aspects which I described here and other many more hidden aspects. Even if a single player's form can decide the fate of a match as we are the witness to our beloved "Master blaster Sachin Tendulkar". Similarly, an organised and great teamwork can also increase the match-winning probability to a great height. As we

Religions in India

Religions in India India is the birth place of Religions, India is a secular nation and has many Religions. There are several religions in India such as Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, Islam, Jainism, Zoroastrianism and Sikhism. Indian religions is a major form of world religions next to the Abrahamic religions. Today, Hinduism and Buddhism are the world's third- and fourth-largest religions respectively, with around 1.4 billion followers altogether. India is one of the most religiously diverse nations in the world, with some of the most deeply religious societies and cultures. Religion still plays a central and definitive role in the life of most of its people. In India the Hinduism is in majority with around 80% of the population, Islam the second largest population of the country constitutes for around 14% of the total population of India (which is now 1.21 billion according to 2011 Census). Other religions like Buddhism, Sikhism and Jainism are in Minority. Christia

Indian Festivals

India, being a multi-cultural and multi-religious society, celebrates holidays and festivals of various religions. Three national holidays of India Independence Day Republic Day and Gandhi Jayanti are celebrated with zeal and enthusiasm across India. In addition, many states and regions have local festivals depending on prevalent religious and linguistic demographics. Popular religious festivals include the Hindu festivals of Diwali, Ganesh Chaturthi, Durga puja, Holi, Rakshabandhan and Dussehra. Several harvest festivals, such as Sankranthi, Pongal and Onam, are also fairly popular. Certain festivals in India are celebrated by multiple religions. Notable examples include Diwali which celebrated by Hindus, Sikhs and Jains and Buddh Purnima which is celebrated by Buddhists and Hindus. Islamic festivals, such as Eid ul-Fitr, Eid al-Adha and Ramadan, are celebrated by Muslims across India. Adding colours to the culture of India, the Dree Festival is one of the tribal festiv


Namaste, Namaskar or Namaskaram is a common spoken greeting or salutation in the Indian subcontinent. Namaskar is considered a slightly more formal version than namaste but both express deep respect. It is commonly used in India and Nepal by Hindus, Jains and Buddhists, and many continue to use this outside the Indian subcontinent. In Indian and Nepali culture, the word is spoken at the beginning of written or verbal communication. However, the same hands folded gesture is made usually wordlessly upon departure. In yoga, namaste is said to mean "The light in me honors the light in you," as spoken by both the yoga instructor and yoga students. Taken literally, it means "I bow to you". The word is derived from Sanskrit (namas): to bow, obeisance, reverential salutation, and respectand (te): "to you". When spoken to another person, it is commonly accompanied by a slight bow made with hands pressed together, palms touching and fingers pointed upwards, in fro

Success Mantras - Get Inspired, Get Motivated

Success  The first and most important step towards success is the feeling that we can succeed Successful persons can never be defeated by problems! they become masters of the situation and defeat the problem! One's best success comes after their greatest disappointments. Success seems to be connected with actions. Successful people keep moving, they make mistakes, but they never quit. That some achieve great success is proof that others can achieve it as well. A successful life is one that is lived through understanding and pursuing one's own path, not chasing after the dreams of others. Appreciation Appreciation is a wonderful makes what is excellent in others belong to us as well. A word of encouragement during a failure is more than an hour of praise after success. The deepest principle in human nature is the craving to be appreciated. "feeling appreciated is one of the most important needs that people have. when you sha



a true indian.: truths are still alive on earth in these forms

now you have to believe it. and i request you to nourish these truths so well that they become a symbol of truth forever. its our responsibility to strengthen and make alive our old truths prevailing.

A life during SMS Era

Badalon se salam leta hun, waqt ka hath tham leta hun, maut bhi ruk jati hai pal bhar ke liye jab tera daman tham leta hun. Zindagi mohtaz nahi manjilon ki, waqt har manzil dikha deta hai marta nahi koi kisi ki judai mein, waqt sabko jina sikha deta hai. Do chizon se bani hai ye dunya, thodi himmat thoda dum do lamhon se bani hai ye zindagi thodi khusi thoda ghum do chizo se bani hai ye dosti Ek aap ek hum. Agar tu parayon ki sunega to haar jayega, hum jaisa pyar fir kahan payega. jaan dene ki baat to sab karte hain, Zindagi banane wala kahan se payega. Agar ho waqt to ek mulakat to dijiye, dil kuch kehna chahe to kuch baat to kijiye. yun to mushkil hai humse dur rehna. par ek lamha mil jaye to humen yaad to kijiye. Kisi ki yaad mein dil tadapta kyun hai, akhir ye dil kisi se pyar karta kyun hai. agar mile khuda to puchhunga usse tu akhir seene mein dil rakhta kyun hai. Surat unki khyalon se kyun nahi jati, nind hai ankhon mein magar kyun nahi ati. wo

strikes in college campus.

it seems very unreal but what i have found is that strikes or intro which is most common in college campusses are really very very helpful in one's personality development. most of those shy guys you just force them to attend the strikes. i bet you will surely notice a marginal development in their personality. they will start raising their voices. the strikes not only help in personality development but also make us feel that we too are important and are recognised by the management. that is we gain a lot of self confidence their. strikes not only increase our self confidence but also compell to think us logically and ethically. strikes also makes people to know other people very clearly and in a well defined way. not only this strikes makes people relax from the tedious works and the bored routine life. now intro helps us in giving the logical and accurate answers. make us aware that we should open our mouth only when we stand for it and can support our arguments firmly. we shoul


if india being among the least sufferers of recession is facing such traumas, we indians can well imagine with what condition must be other countries citizens are going through. recession in india has almost broke the backbone of india's I.T sector.this year in many of the engineering colleges IT branch has been removed. now the craze of computer science has turned sour. no one wants to be a part of IT sector. the faith over the IT sector is eloping and fading. students are reacting to the IT sector as if they have been told to jump in a deep canyon. if this would continue for more 2-3 years can we imagine, the position of IT sectors. we will be at 60 years back. after 30 years. we may get so bored with our life that we may lose our good habits. it may happen that, we just skip surfing the nets for any new software or any new products or anything related to IT sectors. i think this is the high time, india needs good talents to curb these menace. a great awareness program should be

indian politics

what has happened to our indian politics? not a single party is truly working for the country. every party either rulling, opposition or right or left not a single party is looking forward to fulfill our dream to make india a developed nation before 2020. each party is working for their own sweets, some is concerned more for their sweets some bit less. why actually good people who really want to serve the nation are not preffering politics as their carreer? what i have found are these. *it's almost impossible for any true and truthful person to enter into politics without sacrificing his/her conscience, true moral and faith. *to enter into politics what you truly require is not the will to serve,education or any good quality which are supposed to be in a politician but you require a lot of money and muscles power to enter into it. *their is a hope of presence of some good politicians still in this political scenario also, if the person inherits politics from his/her forefathers or