Skip to main content

Know all about the former Prime Minister of India Indira Gandhi

Best ever Prime Minister of India Indira Gandhi
Indira Gandhi (PM of India 1966)
Born: November 19, 1917
Martyrdom: October 31, 1984

Achievements: Became President of Indian National Congress in 1959; was Minister of Information and Broadcasting in Lal Bahadur Shastri's government; became Prime Minister in 1966; nationalized major banks in 1969; gave the slogan of Garibi Hatao during 1971 general elections; led India to a decisive war against Pakistan in 1971.

Indira Gandhi, one of the best-known women of the 20th century, was Prime Minister of India, and daughter of former Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru. Also known as Indira Nehru Gandhi, she was born on November 19, 1917, in Allahabad. She was born in a family that was at the centre of the Indian freedom movement. Her father Jawaharlal Nehru and grandfather Motilal Nehru were at the forefront of Indian freedom struggle. Her mother Kamla Nehru, although less involved politically, was subject to political arrest by the British. Indira Gandhi had a lonely childhood, with some of her most vivid remembrances being the entry into her home of British policemen. As her parents did not want to send her to any of the British schools in India, Indira Gandhi's education took place at a series of Indian schools and at non-British schools in Europe, with a number of private tutorials interspersed between periods at school.

Indira Gandhi married a Parsi named Feroze Gandhi in 1942. The marriage was opposed by orthodox Hindus because it was an intercommunal love marriage not arranged by her parents. Jawaharlal Nehru too opposed the marriage on grounds that the couple were somewhat incompatible because both possessed fiery tempers. Publicly, however, both Jawaharlal Nehru and Mahatma Gandhi strenuously defended the marriage. Shortly after their marriage both Indira Gandhi and Feroze Gandhi were arrested and jailed for nationalist activities. Indira Gandhi was released after eight months and Feroze Gandhi after a year. After the release, Feroze Gandhi became editor of The National Herald, a newspaper founded by Jawaharlal Nehru, and Mrs Indira Gandhi became the principal confidant and assistant of her father during the period of Nehru's prime ministership (1947-1965). The couple separated for a number of years during the 1950s as Feroze Gandhi launched his own political career in Parliament and was often at odds with Jawaharlal Nehru's policies and style. In 1959 Indira Gandhi became President of the Indian National Congress and in 1964 she was elected to the parliament. Meanwhile, the death of Feroze Gandhi (from a heart attack) in 1960, and the subsequent death of her father in 1964 caused Indira Gandhi to withdraw into a shell and limit herself to her immediate family.

After the death of Jawaharlal Nehru, Lal Bahadur Shastri became Prime Minister and Indira Gandhi was the minister of Information and Broadcasting in his government. After Lal Bahadur Shastri's untimely death in 1966, she was selected as prime minister by party bosses within the Congress Party as a compromise candidate. Her candidature was opposed by Morarji Desai, a veteran nationalist and prime ministerial aspirant himself. The Congress bosses were apparently looking for a leading figure acceptable to the masses, who could not only command general support during the next general election but who would also acquiesce to their guidance. In her initial days as Prime Minister, Indira Gandhi encountered numerous problems such as Mizo tribal uprisings in the northeast; famine, labour unrest, and misery among the poor in the wake of rupee devaluation; and agitation in Punjab for linguistic and religious separatism.

In the fourth general elections held in 1967, Congress suffered a major setback. Congress majority was greatly reduced in parliament and non-Congress ministries were established in Bihar, Kerala, Orissa, Madras, Punjab, and West Bengal. This forced Mrs Indira Gandhi to become assertive and opt for a series of choices that pitted her directly against the Congress Party high command, which had previously been built up by her father. Seeking to eradicate poverty, Mrs Gandhi pursued a vigorous policy in 1969 of land reform and placed a ceiling on personal income, private property, and corporate profits. She also nationalized the major banks, a bold step amidst a growing rift between herself and the party elders. The Congress expelled her for "indiscipline" on November 12, 1969, an action that split the party into two factions: the Congress (O)-for Organisation-led by Morarji Desai, and the Congress (I)--for Indira-led by Indira Gandhi.

Indira Gandhi campaigned fiercely on the slogan of "Garibi Hatao" (eliminate poverty) during the fifth general elections in March 1971 and won an unprecedented two-thirds majority. Her leadership qualities came to the fore during the India-Pakistan war in 1971 that resulted in the liberation of Bangladesh. India achieved a decisive victory over Pakistan in the face of diplomatic opposition from both China and the United States and a lack of international support from almost every other nation except the Soviet Union and the Eastern Bloc countries. Indian victory over Pakistan led to a great surge in Indira Gandhi's popularity and she was compared to Goddess Durga by ordinary Indians.

Expectations raised by the "Garibi Hatao" campaign and India's victory over Pakistan in 1971 led to great disappointment and political difficulties in the mid-1970s. The enormous economic cost of 1971 war, increase in world oil prices and, drop in industrial output added to the economic hardships. During this time J.P.Narayan initiated a civil disobedience movement against Indira Gandhi. In June 1975, amidst all these crises Allahabad High Court invalidated her 1971 election on the grounds of electoral malpractices. Instead of resigning, Indira Gandhi declared an Emergency in the country and jailed al her political opponents. The Emergency lasted till March 1977 and in the general election held afterwards, she was defeated by a coalition of parties called Janta Morcha.

Factionalism among coalition partners led to the collapse of Janta government and Indira Gandhi came back to the power once again in 1980. But her second innings was beset with difficulties and personal tragedies. Her younger son Sanjay Gandhi died in an air crash. Her government was confronted with serious challenges to its ability to maintain law and order as conflicts between religious and ethnic groups broke out in different parts of the country. After the army had invaded the Golden Temple in Amritsar, the chief shrine of the Sikhs, which had been held as an armed camp by a group of militant Sikhs, she became the target for Sikh anger and on 31 October 1984, she was assassinated by her own Sikh bodyguard.

Comments

Popular posts from this blog

Know about Mahatma Gandhi, Gandhi Jayanti and International Day of Non-Violence

'Gandhi Jayanti' is celebrated every year to mark the birth anniversary of Gandhiji (Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi), popularly known as Mahatma Gandhi, 'Bapu' or the 'Father of the Nation' in India. Gandhiji is a symbol of peace, non-violence and humanity. He was the protagonist of Peace.

If you land up on this page to know all the recent updates happening in the name of Mahatma Gandhi, this is certainly the best place, as we keep tracking each and every detail of any happenings around the world on Mahatma Gandhi. But if by any chance you land up here for some Mahatma Gandhi Quotes, you can check this link.













Timeline of Mahatma Gandhi (Memories & special mentions of Mahatma Gandhi)↓↓↓


15th June 2007 - The United Nations has also declared October 2 as the International Day of Non-Violence. According to the UN General Assembly resolution of 15 June 2007, which established the commemoration, the International Day of Non Violence is an occasion to "disseminate …

Know about Former IAS Officer Kannan Gopinathan

Kannan Gopinathan (born: 12 December 1985) was an IAS officer from Kerala. He came into the limelight after resigning his post and stating that he was unhappy about how the fundamental rights of the people of Jammu & Kashmir were being denied after the revocation of Article 370.



Early life Kannan was born in Kottayam District of Kerala, he had his formal education from Higher Secondary school of Puthuppally, Kerala. He did B.Tech in Electrical Engineering from the Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra in Ranchi, Jharkhand. Kannan is having a son Aadu with his wife Himani Pathak.

Career Kannan's first posting was in Delhi from July 2013 to July 2014 as an Assistant Collector.  In September 2014, He was then transferred to Mizoram as the Deputy Collector of Hnahthial. He worked for one and a half years before being promoted as the District Magistrate/Deputy Commissioner of Aizawl in Mizoram in February 2016.
He worked as the DM of Aizawl till December 2017, after which he was pos…

How seven college students come up with a solution to save lives of people from Snakebites

There was a time when India was known with a name which we never liked to hear and that name was the "land of snake charmers", it took us time to get away with that image, but yes certainly we are much more than that image, we are one of the fastest growing economy and 5th largest economy in the world now.

But still with all this, will you believe if I say that in recent times, each year an estimated 80,000 Indians die only due to snake bites? Yes, it's true, as rural India still struggles to get the adequate amount of antidotes and trained hands to tackle the situation.

This snake bites is one of the commonest-but-neglected public health worries. The reason for such high mortality range from delayed or non-arrival of the victims at the health centres within six hours, shortage of anti-venom and inadequate care provided at the health centres. "Delayed treatment can be fatal, especially beyond six hours after the bite. In many parts of South Asia, only half of the p…

Google Boy, mini Encyclopedia or call him a genius child Kautilya Pandit

Sometimes I ask myself, where is God and why doesn't he come up and shows his presence to us and there I come up with a live example which makes me spellbound, I just get stark and numb to the God. Recently I was going through some videos on YouTube and I found a video posted by Zee News titled "Google Boy Kautilya".

I couldn't pass through it without watching the whole and I did what I think God wanted me to do. It was sheer wonder I saw, magic, a boy of not even 5 years old was answering the questions which I couldn't even at this age. What a guy, simply a magic show was going through. Kautilya Pandit who hails from Kohand village of Karnal district in Haryana was born on 24th December 2007. The guy Kautilya is having a photographic memory which helps him memorizing the things very quickly and easily. It is believed that Kautilya will be having an IQ of around 130, which is considered very high in his age group children.

Kautilya has memorized the whole of the…

Best ever President of India - Dr APJ Abdul Kalam

Dr APJ Abdul Kalam was an eminent scientist and aerospace engineer, he served as the 11th President of India from the period 2002 to 2007. APJ Abdul Kalam was a man of vision, full of ideas aimed at the development of the country. He firmly believed that India needs to play a more assertive role in international relations.

Dr Kalam also often referred to as the"Missile Man of India". People loved and respected Dr APJ Abdul Kalam so much during his tenure as President that he was popularly called as "The People's President".

Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam (Born: 15 October 1931 – Died: 27 July 2015), born and raised in Rameswaram, Tamil Nadu and studied physics and aerospace engineering. He spent the next four decades as a scientist and science administrator, mainly at the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) and Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) and was intimately involved in India's civilian space programme and military missile…